This project is a recreation and interpretation of Iannis Xenakis’s stochastic synthesis model as proposed in Formalized Music and featured in the compositions GENDY3 and S.709. Other than allowing for the system to run on contemporary computers, various non-derivative controls have been implemented along with a new performance paradigm to allow for new compositional interactions not available in the original code. The aim here is to explore an unfinished tool for musical and sonic expression with an emphasis on the comparatives available between the past and present implementations of stochastic synthesis and, perhaps, as a way to think more broadly about computer history’s role in contemporary art.

This application was developed in Max/Msp using custom GEN code by Tony Lugo.

Tony Lugo is a Baltimore based interdisciplinary artist whose practice is based on the development and implementation of generative systems. The emergent technologies he employs facilitate dialogues around the interchange of virtual and physical environments, agency, authorship, and post-postmodern identity. Lugo’s research is rooted in the communication of minimal gestures, language, and forms through a framework predicated on indeterminable outcomes.


Gen code
Initial Max patch with buffer overriding features and polyphonic implementations.

From these initial stages, I developed a video synthesis using the Max/Msp environment’s Jitter engine. The use of primitive forms and color was decided as it best served the correlations of sound to visual. The visuals are completely audio reactive in this case and feed off of the amplitude and pitch values coming from the synthesis system.

Final Results:

More information and details on the process are available @ https://tlucpj.wordpress.com/
An audio recording of NDSS is available @

Going forward:

My aim following the project is to extend this cause and effect relationship between sound and images and to continue exploring the sonic possibilities afforded in having a highly digital and abstract sound generation tool at my disposable for creative application.

continuing synthesis research

More recordings of recent sound projects are available @ https://soundcloud.com/tony-lugo-33877267